In a meeting held at Microsoft's headquarters on June 2,Microsoft executives suggested to Jim Clark's replacement as CEO at Netscape, James Barksdale, that the version of Navigator written for Windows 95 be designed to rely upon the Internet-related APIs in Windows 95 and distinguish itself with "value-added" software components.
Each of those enhancements is based on input from corporate governance experts and is in line with best practices.
Change for Gates Some believe the antitrust case was what pushed Bill Gates out of the top job at Microsoft. Viable Alternatives to Windows On November 24,the Court entered a Preliminary Approval Order in connection with the Settlement which, among other things, preliminary approved the Settlement, authorized notice of the Settlement to Current Microsoft Shareholders, and scheduled the Settlement Hearing to consider whether to grant final approval of the Settlement.
Currently no middleware product exposes enough APIs to allow independent software vendors "ISVs" profitably to write full-featured personal productivity applications that rely solely on those APIs.
Nevertheless, these middleware technologies have a long way to go before they might imperil the applications barrier to entry. By contrast, marginal costs are very low.
The conspiracy theories that have been offered in place of substantive argument are unsupported by any evidence, and seem incredible on their face. What for Microsoft is a positive feedback loop is for would-be competitors a vicious cycle. The applications barrier to entry does not prevent non-Microsoft, Intel-compatible PC operating systems from attracting enough consumer demand and ISV support to survive.
Even if such development were already flourishing, it would be several years before the applications barrier eroded enough to clear the way for the relatively rapid emergence of a viable alternative to incumbent Intel-compatible PC operating systems.
The available remedies fall into two broad categories, conduct remedies and structural remedies. Although the upstart operating system might find itself with enough applications support to hold a fraction of the market, the collective-action phenomenon would still prevent the system from gaining the kind of positive feedback momentum that can turn a fringe entrant into a rival that would put competitive pressure on Windows.
Applications written for Windows would then also run on the rival system, and consumers could use the rival system confident in that knowledge.
Second, because Navigator exposes a set albeit a limited one of APIs, it can serve as a platform for other software used by consumers. One reason for this is the fact that no single type of information appliance, nor even all types in the aggregate, provides all of the features that most consumers have come to rely on in their PC systems and in the applications that run on them.
The software industry in general is characterized by dynamic, vigorous competition. Linux is an "open source" operating system that was created, and is continuously updated, by a global network of software developers who contribute their labor for free.
Therefore, Java developers need to port their applications only to the extent that those applications rely directly on the APIs exposed by a particular operating system.
The Microsoft representatives replied that Microsoft would incorporate most of the functionality of the current Netscape browser into the Windows 95 platform, perhaps leaving room for Netscape to distribute a user-interface shell.
It is unlikely that Microsoft would have imposed this price increase if it were genuinely concerned that OEMs might shift their business to another vendor of operating systems or hasten the development of viable alternatives to Windows.
Microsoft's monopoly power is also evidenced by the fact that, over the course of several years, Microsoft took actions that could only have been advantageous if they operated to reinforce monopoly power. More importantly, while some consumers may decide to make do with one or more information appliances in place of an Intel-compatible PC system, the number of these consumers will, for the foreseeable future, remain small in comparison to the number of consumers deciding that they still need an Intel-compatible PC system.
Many of these actions have harmed consumers in ways that are immediate and easily discernible. In summary, far from the cry of Microsoft's defenders that the company is being punished for being more efficient than its competitors, or for "building a better mousetrap," the facts establish that it engaged in a broad, persistent pattern of behavior for which there is no plausible explanation other than an intention to deprive consumers of the benefits of competition.
If so, increasing numbers of computer users equipped with Web browsers and IAP connections could begin to conduct a significant portion of their computing through these portals. For example, users of Intel- compatible PC operating systems would not switch in large numbers to the Mac OS in response to even a substantial, sustained increase in the price of an Intel-compatible PC operating system.
To the extent they might do so, users probably would not regard the Mac OS's limited stock of compatible applications as the major drawback to using an Apple PC system that it is today, and they might be increasingly drawn to network computer systems and information appliances.
Microsoft also violated section 1 of the Sherman Act by unlawfully tying its Web browser to its operating system. Apple does not license the Mac OS separately from its PC hardware, however, and the package of hardware and software comprising an Apple PC system is priced substantially higher than the average price of an Intel- compatible PC system.
Most Web pages are in the form of "hypertext"; that is, they contain annotated references, or "hyperlinks," to other Web pages. A "Web browser" is a type of Web client that enables a user to select, retrieve, and perceive resources on the Web.The case marks one of the most important turning points in Microsoft’s history, up there with its first agreement to build an operating system for IBM and the introduction of the first version.
3 The Microsoft Antitrust Case 1.
Introduction Microsoft is a large diversified computer software manufacturer. Microsoft produces the Windows family of operating systems for personal computers and servers.
The Anti-Trust Case Against Microsoft Sincea battle has raged in United States courts between the United States government and the Microsoft Corporation out of Redmond, Washington, headed by Bill Gates. What is at stake is money.
The federal government maintains that Microsoft s mono. Why was the antitrust case bought up against microsoft? The Justice Department and the states believe that Microsoft has used its monopoly in operating system software to protect its dominance and eliminate competitors.
The government says that in the long run, consumers will be harmed, because there will be less competition and fewer choices. Discover why the Department of Justice filed antitrust charges against Microsoft in over alleged monopolistic actions and how the company reacted.
Why was the antitrust case bought up against microsoft? The Justice Department and the states believe that Microsoft has used its monopoly in operating system software to protect its dominance and eliminate competitors.Download